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The Brain : Learning and Memory
CHAPTER 1. MEMORIES ARE MADE OF THIS There are several different types of memories, some of which are fleeting, and others that last a lifetime. The shortest type of memory is known as working memory, which can last just seconds. This is what we use to hold information in our head while we engage in other cognitive processes. An example is remembering the numbers a new friend recites as you navigate your phone’s menu system to add a contact. A person’s working memory capability is one of the best predictors of general intelligence, as measured by standard psychological tests. What we typically think of as memory is explicit memory. This can be divided into episodic memories, which are events that have happened in your life, and semantic memories, which are retained facts or general knowledge. The other type of long-term memory is unconscious, or implicit. These are memories you can’t consciously bring to mind, but which shape your behaviour. The most common type of implicit memory is procedural: this is concerned with how actions are performed, like how to ride a bike or play guitar. SO MANY MEMORIES While working memory is short-term, MOST other categories of memory are LONG-TERM .